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International Petroleum Company, Talara, Peru

Reproduced from Contributions from and with the kind permission of the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research

Volume III, Part 1, March, 1952

ABSTRACT—Attention is drawn to confusion in the nomenclature of uniserial calcareous Foraminifera with nonradiate apertures. The main points raised are: (1) Nodosarella is a prior synonym of Ellipsonodosaria, which latter name is, therefore, invalid and should be rejected. By definition Nodosarella is a uniserial form and the name should not be applied to species with a biserial initial portion. The correct name for such species appears to be Ellipsoidella. (2) Siphonodosaria is a prior synonym of Nodogenerina, which latter should, therefore, be rejected. (3) Certain species described under Nodogenerina are not congeneric with the genotype [Siphonodosaria bradyi (Cushman)]. A new genus Orthomorphina is proposed for these species with Nodogenerina havanensis Cushman and Bermudez as genotype. (4) The habitual reference of species with an internally-toothed siphonate aperture to Ellipsonodosaria is faulty. They should be placed in Siphonodosaria. (5) The neglected name Lagenonodosaria appears valid for certain species which differ from the genera mentioned above.

At present authors are not unanimous in their treatment of the uniserial calcareous foraminifera with nonradiate apertures. Many follow Cushman’s classification [1] uncritically, but others recognize its faults and use a modified system. The present writer’s attention was drawn to the question by a study of the correct nomenclature of numerous siphonate species which Cushman and collaborators have persistently referred to “Ellipsonodosaria” although they lack the diagnostic features of Ellipsonodosaria A. Silvestri 1924. Various authors have made casual reference to the problem while discussing individual species, and more general notes have been offered by Jedlitschka [2] and Glaessner [3] . There seems, however, to be no formal summary of the taxonomy of these nodosarian foraminifera and it is therefore believed that publication of the following notes and opinions is justified as a step towards more uniform taxonomic treatment. These notes are, self-evidently, subjective and in no sense authoritative as far as questions of synonymy and priority are concerned. For assistance in marshalling facts and opinions grateful acknowledgment is made to numerous correspondents, especially to Brooks F. Ellis for supplying obscure references; to Rudolf Grill for examining the status of Lingulina tuberosa Gümbel; to C. D. Ovey for re-examining the types of Siphonodosaria abyssorum (Brady); to V. Petters for making translations from the Italian of Silvestri; and to Miss Ruth Todd for checking specimens in the Cushman collection. Reliance for many type-descriptions and cross-references has been placed on the Ellis and Messina “Catalogue of Foraminifera.” The International Petroleum Company is thanked for providing library facilities and permitting publication of this paper.

The uniserial calcareous foraminifera, sometimes termed the nodosarians, can conveniently be divided on the basis of radiate and non-radiate apertures. Genera with radiate apertures are Nodosaria, Dentalina, Chrysalogonium and Pseudoglandulina. Since authors are in close agreement as to their distinctive characters no further attention is paid below to these four genera. The confusion which exists affects the genera with non-radiate apertures, and as a basis for further discussion the original designations of Nodosarella, Ellipsonodosaria, Ellipsoidella, Siphonodosaria, and Nodogenerina are given below:—

Genus Nodosarella Rzehak, 1895

Type Reference: Naturh. Hofmus., Ann., Bd. 10, p. 219. Vienna, 1895.

Type Species: Nodosarella tuberosa (Gümbel) = Lingulina tuberosa Gümbel 1868, genotype by subsequent designation of Cushman 1928.

Type Description: (translation) —

“…A crescentic aperture is found among the Nodosarias which appear not infrequently in the Cretaceous (Lingulina rotundata d’Orb., etc). These forms, mostly described as Lingulinas, differ in their apertures from the true Lingulinas, in which the aperture is not crescentic but a rectilinear (“in einer Ebene liegende”) slit. A further difference lies in the shape of the shell, in that the nodosarians with a crescentic aperture never possess so broad, compressed and carinate a test as the true Lingulinas, but in section appear rounded, at most slightly elliptical (L. tuberosa Gümbel). It is worthy of note that, so far as I know, only one definite type of smooth nodosarian exhibits a crescentic aperture, and it would perhaps not be inappropriate to put it in a special subgenus for which I would propose the name Nodosarella to separate it from Nodosaria…”

Emended description; “Test with the early chambers showing traces of the biserial ancestry but the later ones in a rectilinear series, very slightly involute, aperture narrow, semicircular.” (Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 3, p. 72, 1927).

Genus Ellipsonodosaria A. Silvestri, 1900

Type Reference: Accad. Sci. Lettere Arti Acireale, Q. Sci., Atti Rend., Acireale, Sicilia, Italia, 1900 n. s., vol. 10, mem. 5, p. 3.

Type Species: Ellipsonodosaria rotundata (d’Orb.) = Lingulina rotundata d’Orbigny 1846.

Type Description: (translation) —

“These are the Nodosariae of uncertain position, referred to by some as belonging to Lingulina, by others to Nodosaria, and represented by Lingulina rotundata d’Orbigny. On account of their special origin I should be inclined to distinguish them as “Ellipsonodosariae.” They may be easily distinguished by the arcuate and not round form of their aperture.” (NOTE: Silvestri follows this paragraph with general comments on the Ellipsoidinidae and mentions absence of internal tubes in Ellipsonodosaria).

Genus Ellipsoidella Heron-Allen and Earland, 1910

Type reference: Roy. Micr. Soc., Jour., pp. 410, 414, London, 1910.

Type species: Ellipsoidella pleurostomelloides Heron-Allen and Earland 1910.

Type Description: —

“Test free, cylindrical, the early chambers somewhat compressed and arranged in an irregularly triserial or biserial manner, the later chambers nodosarian; aperture a terminal crescentic slit, surmounted by a slightly raised and overhanging process. The interior of each chamber traversed from base to apex by a column similar in appearance, position and structure to the internal column of Ellipsoidina.”

Genus Siphonodosaria A. Silvestri. 1924

Type Reference: Soc. Geol. Ital., Boll., Rome, 1924. Vol. 42 (1923), p. 18.

Type Species: Not designated. By subsequent designation Siphonodosaria abyssorum (Brady) = Nodosaria abyssorum Brady 1881, first species included in the genus, in Cushman, Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 3, p. 69, pl. 14, fig. 20. 1927.

Type Description: (translation) —

“This is a new generic name which I propose today for those Nodosariae which originate from the Siphogenerinae and may be considered as representing the highest stage of evolution.”

Genus Nodogenerina Cushman, 1927

Type Reference: Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 2, p. 79. 1927.

Type species: Nodogenerina bradyi Cushman 1927 = Sagrina virgula Brady 1884 in part.

Type Description: —

Test uniserial, straight, chambers increasing in size as added, distinct, inflated, constricted at the connection between chambers: wall calcareous, finely perforate: aperture terminal, central, rounded, with a cylindrical neck and phialine lip. The genus … is a derivative as an end form from Siphogenerina.

By definition Nodosarella Rzehak 1895 and Ellipsonodosaria Silvestri 1900 appear to be synonymous. Rzehak indicated that Lingulina rotundata d’Orb. was a representative species of Nodosarella, yet Silvestri chose this same species as genotype for Ellipsonodosaria. This synonymy has been pointed out by Nuttall [4] and Glaessner [5] , and is accepted without discussion in recent papers by Bermudez [6] , but most authors have followed Cushman (see above) in his emended description of Nodosarella as a genus with traces of its biserial ancestry.

Rigid application of the rules of nomenclature appears to call for three steps in rectifying the confusion, viz.

(i)         The name Ellipsonodosaria should be rejected completely. Species named Ellipsonodosaria in accordance with Silvestri’s definition should be transferred to Nodosarella.

(ii)        The name Nodosarella should be applied only to uniserial species and not to species showing biseriality of the initial portion.

(iii)       A new name should be proposed, or an old one revived, for the species which show biseriality. These forms intermediate between Pleurostomella and Nodosarella are exactly covered by the definition of Ellipsoidella (see above), and it seems that this genus should be restored to general use. It has been suppressed in the Cushman classification as a synonym of Nodosarella Cushman (non Rzehak) but this procedure now appears unjustified.

(In practice some difficulty exists in separating marginal species of the two closely related genera Nodosarella and Ellipsoidella. For this reason some thought was given to the possibility of changing the rank of Ellipsoidella to a subgenus of Nodosarella. This idea was not adopted, however, as there is little precedent for such action and it has not been considered necessary in comparable cases in other closely-knit foraminiferal families, e. g. Plectofrondicularia and Amphimorphina, Valvulineria and Discorbis, Virgulina and Bolivina, and many others).

No difference is readily apparent between Siphonodosaria Silvestri 1924 [7] and Nodogenerina Cushman 1927. Both authors evidently visualized an attenuated development from Siphogenerina, and there is nothing in Cushman’s description of Nodogenerina which is not implicit in Silvestri’s regrettably brief definition of Siphonodosaria. In probably the first reference in English to Siphonodosaria, Cushman (see genotype designation above) described it as “uniserial, chambers generally globular, with a neck and phialine lip and large rounded aperture,” a description not significantly different from that of Nodogenerina. Glaessner [8] has later introduced the presence or absence of an internal tooth as a diagnostic feature, but no foundation for this is seen in the literature.

The genotypes of Siphonodosaria and Nodogenerina belong to widely distributed species-groups which authors have tended to treat as congeneric (currently usually under the name Ellipsonodosaria). A characteristic of all these species is the existence of microspheric and megalospheric forms, the former with a set of tapering initial chambers, the latter with a large bulbous initial chamber, but both identical as to adult chambers and aperture (see Text Fig. 1, e, f). The fact that Cushman, in the plates for his well-known textbooks, has figured the microspheric form for Nodogenerina but the megalospheric form for Siphonodosaria has possibly introduced a conceptual difference between these genera which has no basis in fact.

The present writer is of the opinion that Siphonodosaria and Nodogenerina are synonymous, in which case the prior name Siphonodosaria should be retained, Nodogenerina being rejected.

This procedure introduces the question of which foraminiferal family should include the genus Siphonodosaria since in Cushman’s classification Siphonodosaria falls in the Buliminidae whereas the apparently synonymous Nodogenerina is placed in the Heterohelicidae. There seems very little doubt that Siphonodosaria is a Buliminid genus. Silvestri’s stated concept, at first maintained by Cushman (for Nodogenerina) was a genus phylogenetically one stage further evolved than Siphogenerina. Later Cushman erected a subfamily Eouvigerininae of the Heterohelicidae with the lineage Heterohelix-Eouvigerina-Pseudouvigerina-Siphogenerinoides-Nodogenerina, a parallel to the Buliminid subfamily Uvigerininae. This classification is faulty, as shown by Stone’s conclusive demonstration that Siphogenerinoides belongs to the Buliminidae [9] .

On the foregoing grounds Siphonodosaria, including Nodogenerina, is placed in the Buliminidae, but there are certain Nodosarians which may well have evolved from the Heterohelicidae. Several such species have been described under Nodogenerina though not conforming with Cushman’s designation of that genus. It seems necessary to erect a new genus to receive these forms, viz.

Genus Orthomorphina gen. nov.

Synonymy: Nodosaria (pars) of authors
Nodogenerina (pars) of authors

Type species: Orthomorphina havanensis (Cushman and Bermudez) = Nodogenerina havanensis Cushman and Bermudez 1937 (Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 13, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. 47, 48).

Description: Calcareous, uniserial, straight, thin-shelled, smooth or lightly costate. Chambers usually inflated, sutures distinct. Early chambers usually globular, later chambers tending to become lengthened and apiculate, though in each chamber but the last the projecting portion is hidden under the next-formed chamber. Chamber arrangement typically slightly irregular, with one or two of the median chambers often larger than the terminal chamber. Usually from five to seven chambers, rarely more than seven. Aperture terminal, central, variously a simple circular orifice as in O. rohri, a simple apiculate neck as in O. obsoleta, or an apiculate neck with a thickened or everted rim as in O. havanensis or O. challengeriana. Outline drawings of some typical species are given on Text Fig. 1, t-x.

Species of this genus differ from Siphonodosaria in one or more of the following respects: in the usually smaller number of chambers and in the irregularity of their growth; in the apiculate shape of the later chambers and their overlapping arrangement; in the absence of thickened necks or strong constrictions between chambers; in apertural characteristics, especially in the absence of any apertural tooth.

Its suggested systematic position is in the Heterohelicidae, subfamily Plectofrondiculariinae, the endform of the lineage Plectofrondicularia-Amphimorphina-Nodomorphina. This allocation is suggested by the uniserial form, simple terminal aperture, thin shell and light ornamentation. Alternatively its ancestry might be remote, linked with species described under Dentalina by Terquem from the European Jurassic (D. affinis, D. alternans, and numerous others).

Species list: Described species which seems to fall under the new genus Orthomorphina include:­

O. ambigua (Neugeboren)

= Nodosaria ambigua Neugeboren (K. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturw. Cl., Denkschr., Bd. 12, Abt. 2, p. 71, pl. 1, figs. 13-16. Vienna 1856)

O. challengeriana (Thalmann)

= Nodogenerina challengeriana Thalmann (Eclog. Geol. Helv., vol. 30, p. 341. 1937)

= Nodosaria perversa Brady (non Schwager) (Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 9, pl. 64, figs. 25-27. 1884)

O. contorta (Costa)

= Nodosaria contorta Costa (Accad. Pontiniana Napoli, Atti, vol. 7, fasc. 2, p. 159, pl. 16, fig 2. 1856)

(?) O. elongata (Silvestri)

= Nodosaria scalaris (Batsch) var. elongata A. Silvestri (Accad. Pont. Sci. Nuovi Lincei, Mem., vol. 12, p. 158. 1896)

O. fijiensis (Cushman)

= Siphonodosaria fijiensis Cushman (Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 7, p. 30, pl. 4, fig. 10. 1931)

O. glandigera (Schwager)

= Nodosaria glandigera Schwager (Novara Exped. 1857-59, Geol. Theil, Bd. 2, Abt. 2, p. 219, pl. 4, fig. 46. Vienna 1866)

O. havanensis (Cushman and Bermudez): genotype, as above.

(?) O. hemiglobosa (Degli Innocenti)

= Nodosaria scalaris (Batsch) var. hemiglobosa Degli Innocenti (Accad. Pont. Sci. Nuovi Lincei, Mem., ser. 2, vol. 12, p. 367, fig. 8. 1929)

O. jedlitschkai (Thalmann)

= Nodogenerina jedlitschkai Thalmann (Eclog. Helv. Geol., vol. 310, p. 341. 1937)

= Nodosaria radicula var. annulata Brady (non Terquem et Berthelin, 1875) (Challenger Rept., Zool., vol. 9, pl. 62, figs. 1, 2. 1884)

(?) O. laevis (Cushman and Bermudez)

= Nodogenerina laevis Cushman and Bermudez (Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 13, p. 15, pl. 2, fig. 12. 1937)

O. milletti (Cushman)

= Nodogenerina milletti Cushman (Contr. Cushnian Lab., vol. 9, pt. 4, p. 86, pl. 8, figs. 17, 18. 1933)

O. neviani (Fornasini)

= Nodosaria neviani Fornasini (R. Accad. Sci. Inst. Bologna, Mem., ser. 4, tomo 10, p. 469, pl. 1, fig. 23. 1890)

O. obsoleta (Acosta)

= Nodogenerina obsoleta Acosta (Torreia, no. 5, P. 5, pl. 1, fig. 8. Havana, Cuba, 1940)

O. perversa (Schwager)

= Nodosaria perversa Schwager (Novara Exped. 1857-59, Geol. Theil, Bd. 2, Abt. 2, p. 212, pl. 5, fig. 29. 1866)

O. pupoides (O. Silvestri)

= Nodosaria pupoides O. Silvestri (Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania, Atti, ser. 3, tomo 7, p. 65, pl. 6, figs. 148-158. 1872)

O. rohri (Cushman and Stainforth)

= Nodogenerina rohri Cushman and Stainforth (Cushman Lab., Spec. Publ. 14, p. 39, pl. 5, fig. 26. 1945)

O. sculpturata (Cushman)

= Nodogenerina sculpturata Cushman (Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 15. pt. 3, p. 63, pl. 10, fig. 55. 1939)

At this point three genera of uniserial calcareous foraminifera with non-radiate apertures have been recognized: Nodosarella (including Ellipsonodosaria), Siphonodosaria (including Nodogenerina) and Orthomorphina n. gen. These ought to be adequate for a clear-cut classification, but confusion persists because it has become customary to allocate to Ellipsonodosaria many species which do not agree with the definition of that genus.

The aperture of Nodosarella (formerly Ellipsonodosaria) was defined as “arcuata e non rotunda,” and Silvestri’s intention is well exemplified by the genotype he chose (see Text. Fig. 1, o, p). Other species with this typical Ellipsoidinid aperture were later designated, including E. chapmani Silvestri 1923, E. liebusi Storm 1929, E. silesica Jedlitschka 1930, E. subnodosa (Guppy) Nuttall 1928 and E. torrei Palmer and Bermudez 1936.

In 1929 Cushman [10] and in 1930 Cushman and Jarvis [11] briefly referred certain nodosarians with a toothed tubular aperture to Ellipsonodosaria. In 1934 Cushman and Jarvis published a paper entitled “Some interesting new uniserial foraminifera from Trinidad” [12] in which detailed apertural views were given of several forms which have in common a tubular aperture containing a tooth-like process (see Text Fig. 1, i-l). The name Ellipsonodosaria was applied to these species and in subsequent literature this lead has been followed in naming many similar forms. Cushman and Jarvis gave no formal justification for such a radical expansion of the scope of Ellipsonodosaria. Of the rare species E. dentaliniformis they remarked (1934, p. 73): “The apertural characteristics of this species are very interesting, showing apparently very close relationships to some of the biserial forms of the Ellipsoidinidae.” The basis for this statement is not clear, unless it be the eccentric position of the aperture. Similarity to the hooded aperture of Pleurostomella seems slight. Certainly neither this species nor the others figured with it show even a faint apertural resemblance to Ellipsonodosaria.

Siphonodosaria suggests itself as the correct genus for these forms with a wide tubular aperture. The species named Ellipsonodosaria nuttalli by Cushman and Jarvis had, indeed, been called Nodosaria abyssorum, the genotype of Siphonodosaria, by earlier authors [13] . However, Cushman and Jarvis (1934, p. 72) opined that “the apertural characteristics of our material seem to be very different from that figured by Brady.” This opinion is open to question simply because Brady did not include an end-view in his figures: in side-view (see Text Fig. 1, a, b, d, e) the main difference is in degree of development of the collar, which could be a matter of environment rather than genetics and does not seem an adequate basis for a change of genus. Jedlitschka [14] made detailed studies of Nodosaria abyssorum and the closely related Dentalina verneuili d’Orb. He referred them to a new genus, Sagrinnodosaria, with the covering comment (translation): “They occupy a position intermediate between the genera Nodosaria and Sagrina but can not be placed directly under either of these, so it seems expedient to me to put both these species together in a single genus for which I propose a name which reveals the intermediate position of the species in question.” Jedlitschka made no reference to Siphonodosaria in this paper, but it is evident that he had the same idea as Silvestri of a completely uniserial development from Siphogenerina and he specifically included N. abyssorum, the genotype of Siphonodosaria. In numerous accompanying figures of S. verneuili (see Tex. Fig. 1, h, i herewith) Jedlitschka depicts apertural features variable but of the same general type as the Trinidad species figured under Ellipsonodosaria by Cushman and Jarvis.

Various authors have evidently been dissatisfied with the allocation of tubular-apertured nodosarians to Ellipsonodosaria, as is shown by sundry references of the species nuttalli, verneuili, jarvisi, lepidula, etc. to Siphonodosaria in the synonymies listed below.

From the foregoing considerations the present writer has formed the opinion that ‘Ellipsonodosarianuttalli should be considered congeneric, probably conspecific, with Siphonodosaria abyssorum (Brady) and likewise that other nodosarians with a tubular aperture complicated by phialine lips and internal tooth-like processes should be referred to Siphonodosaria, never Ellipsonodosaria. Proof of the correctness of this opinion clearly rests on an inspection of the apertural details of Brady’s types of the species abyssorum. With some misgivings as to their availability this problem was set before Mr. C. D. Ovey of the British Museum and he found himself able to reply as follows (private communication): “I have examined Brady’s Nodosaria? abyssorum. The two figured specimens [15] both have apparently siphonate apertures and each has a lip with what appears to be a bifid projection within the mouth of the aperture. Five other specimens are also mentioned but they are all broken. I have six specimens of what Nuttall has identified (in 1926, manuscript list) as N. abyssorum from the Naparima beds of Trinidad. These are all broken but are undoubtedly the same as the ‘Challenger’ forms described and figured by Brady.” This positive statement reduces surmise to a minimum. Especially important is the mention of a bifid projection within the aperture of the genotype of Siphonodosaria and it can hardly be doubted that if Cushman and Jarvis had known of this they would have referred the species discussed above to Siphonodosaria and not to Ellipsonodosaria.

The significance of the toothed apertural process in Siphonodosaria is a matter for conjecture. It seems rather probable that it is a relic of the internal siphon typical of the Buliminidae, modified — possibly quasi-atrophied — as a result of elongation of the test. Samoilova, in describing the species S. helenae (see list below), states that the tooth represents lobes diverging radially from the end of the siphon tube. It may be expected that the degree of development of the tooth will vary from species to species. It may even be absent in some forms, but the writer is of the opinion that presence or absence of an apertural tooth should not be given generic significance among the nodosarians which in other respects agree with Siphonodosaria. It is considered that the new genus Orthomorphina differs in sufficient other aspects that even its species with apertural necks will not be confused with Siphonodosaria.

The ancestry of Siphonodosaria has usually been regarded as a direct phylogenetic advance from Siphogenerina. Cushman has treated Nodogenerina, here considered synonymous with Siphonodosaria, as similarly developed from Siphogenerinoides. The age range of Siphonodosaria seems to preclude Siphogenerina as its main parent stock, since Siphonodosaria ranges from Upper Cretaceous up through the Tertiary whereas Siphogenerina is a Tertiary genus which only became prominent during the Oligocene. One is tempted, therefore, to regard the early forms of Siphonodosaria as being developed from Siphogenerinoides in the Upper Cretaceous. There is a distinct apertural similarity between normal Siphonodosaria and specimens of Siphogenerinoides [16] in which the apertural lip is incompletely fused (see Tex Fig. 1, m, n).

In the list which follows attention is drawn to some nodosarian species which seem to fall under Siphonodosaria though hitherto usually classified under other genera, principally Ellipsonodosaria and Nodogenerina.

Outline drawings of uniserial calcareous foraminifera


a, b, S. abyssorum, genotype. Type specimens (after Brady). c, d, S. abyssorum (?). Apertural views of the Trinidad form (“E. nuttalli”) (after Cushman and Jarvis). e, f, S. abyssorum (?) var. gracillima. Illustrating the dimorphism of the genus (after Cushman and Stainforth). g, S. verneuili. Longitudinal section (after Jedlitschka). h, i, j, k, l, Apertural views, respectively, of S. verneuili (after Jedlitschka), S. verneuili, S. paucistriata, S. subnodosa and S. mappa (after Cushman and Jarvis).


m, Aperture of specimen with incompletely fused lip (after Stone). n, Aperture of specimen with completely fused lip (after Stone).

Nodosarella (formerly Ellipsonodosaria)

o, N. rotundata, formerly genotype of Ellipsonodosaria. Type specimen (after d’Orbigny). p, N. chapmani.

Longitudinal section of type specimen (after A. Silvestri).


q, E. salmojraghi, typifying Nodosarella Cushman (non Rzehak). Longitudinal section of type specimen (after Martinotti). r, E. pleurostomelloides, genotype. Cotype specimen (after Heron-Allen and Earland).


s, N. tuberosa, genotype. Type specimen (after Gümbel).


t, u, O. havanensis, proposed genotype. Type specimens (after Cushman and Bermudez). v, O. jedlitschkai. Type specimen (after Brady). w, O. rohri. Type specimen (after Cushman and Stainforth). x, O. challengeriana. Type specimen (after Brady).


y, L. scalaris var. sagamiensis. Cotype specimen (after Asano).

Figure 1

The synonymy is not intended to be complete, but as far as possible the earliest references are given for each genus under which the various species have been listed. The ubiquitous Nodosaria and Dentalina of the earlier European authors doubtless include other species of Siphonodosaria, but without access to types it is unwise to attempt a revision based on figures alone: for instance Dentalina verneuili d’Orb. is a characteristic Siphonodosaria but would not be taken as such from the type figure.

Siphonodosaria abyssorum (Brady)

= Sagrinnodosaria abyssorum (Brady) Jedlitschka, 193125, plate, 126, figs. 24, 25)

= Siphonodosaria abyssorum (Brady) Cushman, 1927. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 3, p. 69, pl. 14, fig. 20)

= Nodosaria abyssorum Brady, 1881. (Micr. Soc., Lond., Quart. Jour., n. s., vol. 21, p. 63: Challenger Exped. 1873-76, Rept. Zool. Vol. 9, p. 504, pl. 63, figs. 8, 9)

S. abyssorum (?) (Brady)

= S. nuttalli (Cushman and Jarvis) Glaessner, 1937. Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal. Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3, p. 377)

= Ellipsonodosaria nuttalli Cushman and Jarvis, 1934. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 10, p. 72, pl. 10, figs. 6a, b)

= Nodosaria abyssorum Brady, Guppy. 1904. (Victoria Inst., Trinidad, Proc., vol. 2, p. 12, pl. 1, figs. 10, 11)

S. abyssorum (?) (Brady) var. aculeata (Cushman and Benz)

= Ellipsonodosaria nuttalli Cushman and Jarvis var. aculeata Cushman and Renz, 1948.  (Cushman Lab. Spec. Publ. 24, p. 32, pl. 6, fig. 10)

S. abyssorum (?) (Brady) var. gracillima (Cushman and Jarvis)

= S. nuttalli (Cushman and Jarvis) var. gracillima (Cushman and Jarvis) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 226, pl. 14, figs. 22, 23)

= Ellipsonodosaria nuttalli var. gracillima Cushman and Jarvis. 1934. (Loc. cit., Contr., vol. 10, p. 72, pl. 10, figs. 7a, b)

S. adelinensis (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. adelinensis (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950, (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria (?) adelinensis Palmer and Bermudez, 1936. (Loc. cit., vol. 10, p. 299, pl. 18, fig. 13)

S. adolphina (d’Orbigny)

= S. adolphina (d’Orbigny) Glaessner, 1937. (Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal., Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3. pp. 376-377)

= Nodogenerina adolphina (d’Orb.) Jedlitschka, 1935. (Naturf. Ver. Brünn, Verh., Brünn (Brno), Czechoslovakia, vol. 66 (1934), p. 67)

= Dentalina adolphina d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foraminifères fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Autriche), Gide et Cie., Paris. P. 51, pl. 2, figs. 18-20)

S. advena (Cushman and Laiming)

= Nodogenerina advena Cushman and Laiming, 1931. (Jour. Pal., vol. 5, p. 106, pl. 11, fig. 19)

S. alexanderi (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria alexanderi Cushman, 1936. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 12, p. 52, pl. 9, figs. 6-9)

S. alexanderi var. impensia (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria alexanderi var. impensia Cushman, 1938. (Op. cit., vol. 14, p. 48, pl. 8, figs. 4, 5)

S. annulifera (Cushman and Bermudez)

= S. annulifera (Cushman and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria annulifera Cushman and Bermudez, 1936. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 12, p. 28, pl. 5, figs. 8, 9)

S. antillea (Cushman)

= Nodogenerina antillea (Cushman) Church. 1928 (Jour. Pal., vol. 1, p. 267)

= Nodosaria antillea Cushman, 1923. (U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull., no. 104, p. 91, pl. 14, fig. 9)

S. atlantisae (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria atlantisae Cushman, 1939, (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 15, p. 70, pl. 12, figs. 3, 4)

S. atlantisae (Cushman) var. hispidula (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria atlantisae var. hispidula Cushman, 1939. (loc. cit., fig. 5)

S. bradyi (Cushman)

= S. bradyi (Cushman) Galloway, 1933. (Manual of foraminifera, Bloomington, Ind., pl. 34, fig. 11)

= Nodogenerina bradyi Cushman, 1927. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 2, p. 79)

S. calvertensis (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria calvertensis Cushman, 1948. (Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines and Water Res., Bull., no. 2, p. 223, pl. 15, figs. 14, 15)

S. camerani (Dervieux)

= Ellipsonodosaria camerani (Dervieux) Silvestri, 1923. (Riv. Ital. Pal., Parma, vol. 29, fasc. 1-2, pp. 16-22, pl. 2, figs. 4-12; p. 18, txfs. 4a, b, 5a, b; p. 20, txfs. 9b, 10b, 12b)

= Nodosaria camerani Dervieux, 1894. (Soc. Geol. Ital., Boll., vol. 12, p. 612, pl. 5, figs. 40, 41)

S. caribaea (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. caribaea (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950 (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria caribaea Palmer and Bermudez, 1936. (Loc. cit., vol. 10, p. 297, pl. 18, figs. 10, 11) This is not E. caribaea Palmer, 1945 (Bul. Am. Pal., vol. 29, no. 115, p. 53) which is an invalid homonym, possibly synonymous with S. abyssorum (?) var. gracillima (Cushman and Jarvis).

S. cienegaensis (Kleinpell)

= Nodogenerina cienegaensis Kleinpell, 1938. (Miocene Stratigraphy of California, Am. Ass. Petr. Geol., p. 244, pl. 6, fig. 4)

S. cocoaensis (Cushman)

= S. cocoaensis (Cushman) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria cocoaensis (Cushman) Cushman, 1939. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 15, p. 68, pl. 11, figs. 27-33)

= Nodosaria cocoaensis Cushman, 1925. (Op. cit., vol. 1, p. 66, pl. 10, figs. 5, 6)

S. consobrina (d’Orbigny)

= Nodogenerina consobrina (d’Orbigny) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 55)

= Dentalina consobrina d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foram. foss. Vienne, p. 46, pl. 2, figs. 1-3)

S. cooperensis (Cushman)

= Nodogenerina cooperensis Cushman, 1933. (Op. cit., vol. 9, p. 11, pl. 1, fig. 27)

S. curvatura (Cushman)

= S. curvatura (Cushman) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana, Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria curvatura Cushman, 1939. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 15, p. 71, pl. 12, fig. 6)

S. dentaliniformis (Cushman and Jarvis)

= S. dentaliniformis (Cushman and Jarvis) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 221, pl. 14, fig. 28)

= Ellipsonodosaria dentaliniformis Cushman and Jarvis, 1934. (Loc. cit., Contr., vol. 10, p. 73, pl. 10, fig. 9)

S. dentata-glabrata (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria dentata-glabrata Cushman, 1936. (Op. cit., vol. 12, p. 54, pl. 9, figs. 22, 23)

S. elegans (d’Orbigny)

= Nodogenerina elegans (d’Orb.) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 55)

= Dentalina elegans d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foram. foss. Vienne, p. 45, pl. 1, figs. 52-56)

S. fistuca (Schwager)

= Nodosaria fistuca Schwager, 1866. (Novara Exped. 1857-59, Geol. Theil., bd. 2, abt. 2, p. 216, pl. 5, figs. 36, 37, Vienna) (also = Ellipsonodosaria fistuca and Lagenonodosaria fistuca of authors)

S. georgiana (Cushman)

= Nodogenerina georgiana Cushman, 1935. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 11, p. 80, pl. 12, fig. 16)

S. gracilis (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. gracilis (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 225, pl. 14, fig. 27)

= Ellipsonodosaria gracilis Palmer and Bermudez. 1936, (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., vol. 10, p. 296, pl. 18, figs. 8, 9)

S. granulifera (Galloway and Heminway)

= Nodosarella constricta Cushman and Bermudez var. granulifera Galloway and Heminway, 1941. (New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., vol. 3, p. 439, pl. 35, fig. 5) (Bermudez refers this species to Nodosarella tuckerae (Hadley): see Cushman Lab., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 232, 1949)

S. harrisi (Cole)

= Nodosaria harrisi Cole, 1927. (Bul. Am, Pal., vol. 14, no. 51, p. 16, pl. 3, fig. 2) (Not N. harrisi Vieaux, 1941, an invalid homonym)

S. helenae (Samoilova)

= Ellipsonodosaria helenae Samoilova, 1947. (Soc. Nat. Moscou, Bull., n. s., tome 52 (séct. géol., tome 22), no. 4, pp. 90, 100; p. 87, txfs. 22, 23)

S. hispida (Soldani)

= Nodogenerina hirsuta (Soldani), (sic) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram, Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 56, pl. 7, fig. 7)

= Nodosaria hispida (Soldani) d’Orbigny, 1846 (1839?). (non Schwager, 1866) (Foram. foss. Vienne, p. 35, pl. 1, figs. 24, 25)

= Nodosaria hirsuta d’Orbigny, 1826. (Ann. Set. Nat., vol. 7, p. 252, Paris)

= Orthoceratia hispida Soldani, 1798. (Testaceographiae, vol. 2, p. 15, tab. 2, fig. 31P; vol. 6, tab. 11, fig. f, hh. Siena, Italy) (see: Parker, Jones and Brady, 1871, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 8, p. 154, London).

S. horridens (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria horridens Cushman, 1936. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 12, p. 53, pl. 9, figs. 19-21)

S. indica (LeRoy)

= Ellipsonodosaria indica LeRoy. 1944, (Colorado School of Mines, Quart., vol. 39, no. 3, p. 79, pl. 1, fig. 24)

S. irregularis (Kleinpell)

= Nodogenerina irregularis Kleinpell, 1938. (Miocene Stratigraphy of California, Am. Ass. Petr. Geol., p. 245, pl. 17, fig. 12)

S. jabacoensis (Bermudez)

= S. jabacoensis (Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria jabacoensis Bermudez, 1937. (Op. cit., vol. 11, p. 239, pl. 20, figs. 4, 5)

S. jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)

= Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) Cushman, 1935. (U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Pap. 181, p. 20, pl. 8, figs. 7-9)

= Nodosaria jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, 1926. (Am. Ass. Petr. Geol., Bull., vol. 10, p. 170, pl. 7, figs. 14-16)

S. jarvisi (Cushman)

= S. jarvisi (Cushman) Glaessner, 1937. (Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal., Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3, pp. 375-376, pl. 2, figs. 22, 23)

= Ellipsonodosaria (?) jarvisi Cushman, 1936. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 12, p. 53, pl. 9, figs. 16-18)

S. lepidula (Schwager)

= S. lepidula (Schwager) Glaessner, 1937. (Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal., Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3, p. 376)

= Ellipsonodosaria lepidula (Schwager) Cushman, 1939. (Geol. Soc. Japan, Jour., vol. 46, no. 546, p. 150)

= Nodogenerina lepidula (Schwager) Cushman, Stewart and Stewart, 1930. (San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., Trans., vol. 6, pp. 63, 64, pl. 4, fig. 5)

= Nodosaria lepidula Schwager, 1866. (Novara Exped. 1857-59, Geol. Theil., bd. 2, abt. 2, p. 210, pl. 5, figs. 27, 28)

S. lohmani (Kleinpell)

= Nodogenerina lohmani Kleinpell, 1938. (Miocene Stratigraphy of California, Am. Ass, Petr. Geol., p. 245, pl. 4, fig. 6)

S. mappa (Cushman and Jarvis)

= Ellipsonodosaria mappa Cushman and Jarvis, 1934, (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 10, p. 73, pl. 10, fig. 8)

S. matanzana (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. matanzana (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart, p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria (?) matanzana Palmer and Bermudez, 1936. (Op. cit., vol. 10, p. 298, pl. 18, fig. 12)

S. midwayensis (Cushman and Todd)

= Ellipsonodosaria midwayensis Cushman and Todd, 1946. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 22, p. 61, pl. 10, fig. 25)

= Nodosaria spinulosa (Montague) Plummer, 1927. (Univ. Texas, Bull., no. 2644, p. 84, pl. 4, fig. 9)

S. minuta (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria minuta Cushman, 1938. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 14, p. 48, pl. 8, fig. 6)

S. modesta (Bermudez)

= S. modesta (Bermudez) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 225, pl. 14, fig. 29)

= Ellipsonodosaria modesta Bermudez. 1937. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 11, p. 238, pl. 20, fig. 3)

S. modesta (Bermudez) var. prolata (Cushman and Bermudez)

= S. modesta (Bermudez) var. prolata (Cushman and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950. (Loc. cit., vol. 19, no. 3, chart p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria modesta (Bermudez) var. prolata Cushman and Bermudez, 1937. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 13, p. 109, pl. 16, figs. 1, 7)

S. monilis (O. Silvestri)

= S. monilis (O. Silvestri) Glaessner, 1937. (Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal., Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3, p. 376)

= Nodosaria monilis O. Silvestri, 1872. (Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania (Italy), Atti, ser. 3, tomo 7, p. 71, pl. 8, figs. 173-183)

(For S. nuttalli see S. abyssorum(?)

S. paleocenica (Cushman and Todd)

= Ellipsonodosaria paleocenica Cushman and Todd,

1946. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 22, p. 61, pl. 10, fig. 26)

S. paucistriata (Galloway and Morrey)

= S. paucistriata (Galloway and Morrey) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 226, pl. 14, fig. 25)

= Ellipsonodosaria verneuili (d’Orb.) var. paucistriata (G. and M.) Cushman, 1929. (Loc. cit., Contr., vol. 5, p. 97)

= Nodosarella paucistriata Galloway and Morrey, 1929. (Bull. Am. Pal., vol. 15, no. 55, p. 42, pl. 6, fig. 12)

= Nodosaria intermittens Nuttall, 1928 (not Roemer, 1838). (Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., vol. 84, p. 82, pl. 4, fig. 7)

S. pauperata (d’Orbigny)

= Nodogenerina pauperata (d’Orbigny) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 56, pl. 7, fig. 6)

= Ellipsonodosaria pauperata (d’Orb.) Krejci-Graf and Liebus, 1935. (Neues Jahrb. f. Min., Geol. and Pal., vol. 74, B, p. 125, Stuttgart)

= S. pauperata (d’Orb.) Jedlitschka, 1935. (Naturf. Ver., Brünn (Brno), Czechoslovakia, vol. 66, pp. 63-66, 71; p. 70, tf. la-h)

= Dentalina pauperata d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foraminifères fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Autriche), p. 46, pl. 1, figs. 57, 58. Gide et Cie., Paris)

S. pilulata (Cushman and Todd)

= Ellipsonodosaria pilulata Cushman and Todd, 1948. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 24, p. 5, pl. 2, fig. 8; idem, p. 46)

S. plummerae (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria plummerae Cushman, 1940. (Op. cit., vol. 16, p. 69, pl. 12, figs. 4, 5)

S. pseudoscripta (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria pseudoscripta Cushman, 1937. (Op. cit., vol. 13, p. 103, pl. 15, fig. 14)

S. punctata (d’Orbigny)

= Nodogenerina punctata (d’Orbigny) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 56)

= Dentalina punctata d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 46, pl. 2, figs. 14, 15)

S. recta (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. recta (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1949. (Loc. cit., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 227, pl. 14, fig. 26)

= Ellipsonodosaria recta Palmer and Bermudez, 1936. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 10, p. 297, pl. 18, figs. 6, 7)

S. sagrinensis (Bagg)

= Nodogenerina sagrinensis (Bagg) Jedlitschka, 1935. (Naturf. Ver., Brünn (Brno), Czechoslovakia, vol. 66, p. 69)

= Nodosaria sagrinensis Bagg, 1912. (U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull., no. 513, p. 58, pl. 16, fig. 4) (not N. sagrinensis Storm, 1929, an invalid homonym)

S. sanctaecrucis (Kleinpell)

= Nodogenerina sanctaecrucis Kleinpell, 1938. (Miocene Stratigraphy of  California, Am. Ass. Petr. Geol., p. 246, pl. 4, fig. 22)

S. scripta (d’Orbigny)

= Nodogenerina scripta (d’Orbigny) Marks, 1951. (Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Contr., vol. 2, p. 56)

= Dentalina scripta d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 51, pl. 2, figs. 21, 23)

S. semijugosa (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria semijugosa Cushman, 1939. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 15, p. 69, pl. 12, figs. 1, 2)

S. spinata (Cushman)

= Nodogencrina spinata Cushman, 1934. (Bernice P. Bishop Mus., Bull. no. 119, p. 123, pl. 14, fig. 14)

S. spinescens (Reuss)

= S. spinescens (Reuss) Glaessner, 1937. (Moscow Univ., Lab. Pal., Prob. Pal., vol. 2-3, p. 376)

= Dentalina spinescens Reuss, 1851. (Deutsch Geol. Ges., Zeitschr., bd. 3, p. 62, pl. 3, fig. 10)

S. stephensoni (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria stephensoni Cushman, 1936. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 12, p. 52, pl. 9, figs. 10-15)

S. stephensoni var. speciosa (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria stephensoni var. speciosa Cushman, 1918. (Op. cit., vol. 14, p. 47, pl. 8, fig. 3)

S. subspinosa (Cushman)

= Ellipsonodosaria subspinosa Cushman, 1943. (Op. cit., vol. 19, p. 92, pl. 16, figs. 6, 7)

= Ellipsonodosaria sp.(?) Cushman and Jarvis, 1934. (Op. cit., vol. 10, pl. 10, figs. 4, 5)

S. verneuili (d’Orbigny)

= Nodosarella verneuili (d’Orb.) Galloway and Heminway, 1941. (New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Is., vol. 3, pl. 4, p. 440, pl. 35, fig. 10)

= S. verneuili (d’Orb.) Oppl, 1934. (Naturf. Ver., Brno (Brünn), Czechoslovakia, Verh., vol. 65, p. 55, pl. 1, figs. 17-19, 21-23, 24a-g)

= Sagrinnodosaria verneuili (d’Orb.) Jedlitschka, 1931. (Firgenwald, Reichenberg (Liberec), Czechoslovakia, vol. 4, pp. 122-125; pl, p. 126, figs. 1-23)

= Ellipsonodosaria verneuili (d’Orb.) Cushman, 1929. (Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 5, pp. 96-97, pl. 14, figs. 1-3)

= Nodosaria verneuili (d’Orb.) Nuttall, 1928. (Geol. Soc. Lond., Quart. Jour., vol. 84, p. 81, pl. 4, figs. 14, 15)

= Dentalina verneuili d’Orbigny, 1846. (Foraminifères fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne (Autriche), p. 48, pl. 2, figs. 7, 8; Gide et Cie., Paris)

S. verneuili (d’Orb.) var. emaciata (Palmer and Bermudez)

= S. verneuili (d’Orb,) var. emaciata (Palmer and Bermudez) Bermudez, 1950. (Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., mem., vol. 19, no. 3, chart p. 361)

= Ellipsonodosaria verneuili (d’Orb.) var. emaciata Palmer and Bermudez, 1941. (Op. cit., vol. 15, p. 189, pl. 18, figs. 14-16)

S. volgensis (Samoilova)

= Ellipsonodosaria volgensis Samoilova, 1947. (Soc. Nat. Moscou, Bull., n. s., tome 52 (séct. géol. tome 22), no. 4, pp. 89, 100; p. 87, tfs. 20, 21)

There is a small group of nodosarian foraminifera which can not be placed under Siphonodosaria or Orthomorphina despite some superficial resemblance. A species that may be taken as typical of the group is Nodosaria aculeata d’Orb., 1846. Many others, probably partly synonymous, were described under Nodosaria by d’Orbigny, Neugeboren, Reuss and later authors. The main features are a small number (three to five) of chambers, evenly arranged, globose, and usually striate or hispid: the aperture is simple, at the end of a long thin tube frequently ornamented by multiple rings or collars: the final chamber considered alone is frequently strongly suggestive of one or other species of Lagena. If the name Nodosaria is to be reserved for species with radiate apertures, some other name is required for this group. Lagenonodosaria A. Silvestri, 1900 (genotype Nodosaria scalaris Bartsch var. separans Brady) [17] appears valid for the purpose and seems to deserve a wider acceptance than it has yet achieved.

* Reproduced with the permission of the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, January 2003.

[1] Foraminifera. Their classification and economic use. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 1st Ed., 1928; 2nd Ed., 1933; 3rd Ed., 1940; 4th Ed., 1948.

[2] Naturf. Ver. Brünn, Verh., bd. 66, pp. 61-71, tfs. 1-3. Brünn (Brno), Czechoslovakia, 1935.

[3] Principles of Micropalaeontology, pp. 140, 141. Melbourne Univ. Press, 1945.

[4] Jour. Pal., vol. 6, p. 23, 1932.

[5] Loc. cit., p. 141.

[6] Cushman Lab., Publ. no. 25, pp. 231, 232. 1949.

[7] Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Milano, Atti, vol. 62, fasc. 3-4, p. 347, pl. 7, figs. 58-60; p. 348, tf. 28. Milan, 1924.

[8] Loc. cit., p. 140.

[9] Jour. Pal., vol. 20, pp. 468, 469. 1946.

[10] Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 5, p. 96, pl. 14, figs. 1-5.

[11] Jour. Pal., vol. 4, p. 364, pl. 33, fig. 12.

[12] Cushman Lab., Contr., vol. 10, pp. 71-75, pl. 10.

[13] Guppy. Victoria Inst. Trinidad, Proc., vol. 2, p. 12, pl. 1, figs. 10, 11. 1904. Guppy. Geol. Mag., dec. 5, vol. 1, p. 246, pl. 8, figs. 8, 9. 1904. Nuttall. Geol. Soc. Lond., Quart. Jour., vol. 84, p. 81, pl. 5, fig. 2, 1928.

[14] Firgenwald, Reichenberg (Liberec), Czechoslovakia, Jahrg. 4, pp. 122-125. 1931.

[15] Brady. Challenger Rept., vol. 9, pl. 63, figs. 8, 9. 1884.

[16] Stone. Jour. Pal., vol. 20, p. 467, pl. 71, figs. 13b, 18b, 21b. 1946.

[17] Accad. Sci. Lettere Arti Acireale. Cl. Sci., Atti Rend., n. s., vol. 10 (1898-1900), mem. 5, p. 3. Acireale, Sicily, 1900.